Graphene as a Dental Material

What is Graphene?

Graphene is a nanomaterial composed of carbon with a unique structure separating it from other carbon items. Here, a 2D single-layer structure has sp2 hybridized carbon atoms that have a hexagonal configuration. However, graphene is not static to a single type. Instead, many different graphene nanomaterial forms have now become available, including, but not limited to, ultrathin graphite, few-layer graphene (FLG), reduced graphene oxide (rGO), graphene oxide (GO), and most others. The difference between these types is the size and surface properties involved.


The most extensively used Graphene material in dental treatments is GO, given that it has the best properties out of the lot. The composition of the material makes it easier to interact with polymers, biomolecules, DNA, and proteins. The heterogeneous electron-transfer properties of rGO ensure that it becomes more biocompatible with our bodies and bones. 


The most important factor in immediate loading or function is to ensure that primary stability is achieved completely for the teeth. Restoration can be placed within 48 hours of the initial placement if that happens. If the process is performed for a single tooth, it is called immediate provisionalization.

There are many different ways in which Graphene is currently used in Dentistry applications. Each of these applications is based on some core benefits in Graphene. Consider the details below to find out more:


Biocompatibility: Graphene materials have different cytotoxicity levels based on multiple factors such as the dispensability, state of aggregation, morphology, synthesis methods, surface functionalization, number of layers, etc. These toxicity levels have to be determined to ensure no negative impact on human bodies. Although GO’s level can be considered problematic for the fibroblast cells and T lymphocytes, they are still more compatible with the regularly used materials with much higher levels. GO shows minimal cytotoxicity and minimal damage to the follicle stem cells in humans.


Tissue Engineering: Restoring missing teeth has been a huge issue in dental treatments. The traditionally used materials help reduce tissue damage and work on the periodontal structure of the body. However, artificial biomaterials are known for their lack of healing activities and can be very slow to show any useful results in most cases. The collagen forms five times faster than the artificial material with GO scaffolds. Plus, the binding of the material with human cells is much better than most alternatives.


Antibacterial Uses: Nanomedicine is becoming a more common dental procedure to reduce infections and the negative impacts of different treatments. Currently, Graphene-based nanomaterials used in dental applications help reduce the problems that occur due to microbial activity.


Dental Implants: Fibro-osseous integration is common during dental implant treatment. Here, the biological system has to integrate with the placed implant. If the seal leaks at this point, it could lead to severe infection that can cause bone loss or a need for impairment of the osteogenesis. In such cases, the healing process must be fastened to ensure that bacterial colonization cannot occur. Graphene offers a great alternative in this case. The titanium coat on Graphene makes it self-cleaning and ensures that the surface remains fully protected. At the same time, the binding of the implant with the RUNX2, COL-I, and ALP genes is exceptional.


Endodontics: Root canal treatment is one of the most common treatments performed in dentistry. Here, persistent infection can cause serious damage to the root canal. Using bioactive cement is a common practice for root filling. If graphene nanosheets are used here, the setting time of the cement can fall considerably, making the treatment more effective and beneficial.


Restorative Dentistry: Periodontics is a troublesome disease that needs to be solved as soon as possible to avoid teeth loss. GI is the commonly used material in such cases. When GI is combined with Graphene, its antibacterial, tribological, and mechanical aspects improve considerably. At the same time, it can also help reduce the problems caused by microcracks and disintegration.


Risk Factors Involved in the Use of Graphene

It is extremely important to get your Graphene-based dental treatment only from a reliable provider such as Dental Health Punta Cana. Graphene has many risk factors involved, which can cause serious issues for the patients if the treatment is handled improperly, or the wrong material is used. Thermally reduced graphene oxide can provide the highly toxic, which means using it as dental material is not viable. At the same time, nitrogen-doped graphene can cause serious damage to the membranes of the cells if taken in high doses. It must be administered with extreme care to ensure that no problem occurs at any time. It is still used in medical treatments due to its antioxidant properties, providing a protective layer if properly covered. Therefore, the most suitable item to use in such situations is Graphene Oxide which causes minimal damage to the surrounding cells.


However, even with GO, there are chances of toxicity levels being too high if the treatment is not administered professionally. Therefore, it is crucial to take the right steps involved in the procedure to ensure maximum safety of the patient and useful results from the treatment.


Porcelain veneers are made of a high-quality ceramic material that is durable and long-lasting. They are more expensive than composite veneers but are more resistant to staining and discoloration, making them a good choice for people who want a more permanent solution to their dental problems.


Porcelain veneers are custom-made to fit each individual tooth, and the procedure typically requires two visits to the dentist. During the first visit, the dentist takes an impression of the teeth, and during the second visit, the veneers are bonded to the teeth.


One of the benefits of porcelain veneers is that they are virtually indistinguishable from natural teeth, making them a good choice for people who want a more natural-looking solution to their dental problems. Additionally, porcelain veneers are more durable than composite veneers and have a longer lifespan.

Currently, Graphene is being incorporated into the CAD/CAM-based dental treatment options. If the procedure remains stable, Graphene can become the stable item used throughout dentistry applications. A huge deterrent, in this case, is to determine whether Graphene toxicity levels can be reduced further to make it completely harmless for the patients.

One way in which this aspect is being experimented is through different treatment options being used to create the best graphene form. Certain treatments of the material have shown better results in reducing toxicity levels and enhancing the product’s capabilities than others. Concurrently, mixing Graphene compounds with other regularly used materials in dentistry is another important method of determining its benefits.


Overall, a Graphene treatment is slowly becoming the norm in dentistry, and the future for the treatment material is quite bright.

graphene offers a promising alternative for use in dental restorations. With its high strength, biocompatibility, low electrical conductivity, and antibacterial properties, it has the potential to improve the strength and durability of dental restorations while also providing better patient comfort and safety. As research into the use of graphene in dentistry continues, it is possible that we will see a growing number of dental products based on this technology, helping to improve the oral health and well-being of patients around the world.

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